Description of the KC in the Spanish educational system. Incorporating values into the FL classroom
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Text extracted from: Programación y Unidades didácticas Inglés-Primaria. Método de elaboración y presentación oral.
METHOD FOR THE ELABORATION AND ORAL DEFENCE OF A FL SYLLABUS AND DIDACTIC UNITS. STATE EXAMS. PRIMARY EDUCATION
2. INITIAL APPROACH, AN OVERALL VIEW.
3. UNDERSTANDING A PROGRAMMING DESIGN.
3.1 How the story begins.
3.2 Programming design.
3.3 Syllabus components.
3.3.4 Evaluation criteria and learning standards.
3.4 Key Competences.
3.4.1 A brief introduction.
3.4. 2 Description of the KC in the Spanish educational system.
3.4. 3 Programming strategy. Example.
3.5.1 General methodological strategies.
3.5.2 Specific methodological strategies for the teaching of English as a FL.
3.5.3 Resources in the digital era.
3.5.4 Space layout, time organisation and students´ grouping.
3.5.5 Contribution to the school plans. Main examples: tutorial action plan and reading plan.
3.5.6 Cross-curricular connections.
3.5.7 Extra-curricular activities.
3.5.8 Parental involvement and classroom management.
3.5.9 Transversal elements.
3.6 Attention to diversity.
3.7.2 Stages of evaluation.
3.7.3 Practical hints to put into motion evaluation of competence-based learning in our programming.
3.8 Designing units.
3.8.1 Definition and components.
3.8.2 Sequencing content and methodological perspective.
3.8.3 Getting down to business.
4. FL PROGRAMMING MODELS.
4.1 Before reading the model.
4.2 Road to your Post hints for programming design.
4.3 FL Programming model. Grade 4. Primary Education.
3. Basic curricular elements: contents, evaluation criteria and learning standards.
4. Key competences.
4.1 Contribution from the FL area.
4.2 Competence profile of the area.
5.1 Methodological principles and strategies.
5.2 Groupings, space and time.
5.3 Resources and digital tools.
5.4 Transversal elements.
5.5 Cross curricular links.
5.6 Extra-curricular activities.
5.7 Contribution to the school plans.
5.7.1 The reading plan.
5.7.2 The tutorial action plan (TAP).
6. Specific Needs of Educational Support.
7. Evaluation of the teaching and learning process.
8. Competency Units:
8.1 Unit 1: “Who are you?”
8.2 Unit 2: “Shall we talk?”
8.3 Unit 3: “More about us”.
8.4 Unit 4: “Got Talent!”
8.5 Unit 5: MasterChef”.
8.6 Unit 6: “Would you visit us?”
8.7 Unit 7: “English Cultural Week”.
8.8 Unit 8: “Puppets show”.
8.9 Unit 9: “Planning the future”.
8.10 Unit 10: “The project highlights”.
5. ORAL PRESENTATION: PROGRAMMING AND COMPETENCY UNITS.
5.1 Some initial considerations.
5.2 An effective oral presentation.
5.3 FL programming defence. Script model.
5.4 Unit presentation. Script model. (Unit 8: Puppets show).
6. APPS AND WEBS.
6.1 How would you integrate all these tools in your FL class?
7. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS.
8. CONCLUDING REMARKS.
3.4.2 Description of the KC in the Spanish educational system.
The application of CBE and inclusion of this approach in our FL syllabus is not an option, as it is evident from the study of both Order ECD/65/2015 and RD 126/14. In this concern, it must be noted that CBE is perfectly compatible with the communicative goals expected in our area and the type of linguistic tasks we want children to achieve.
How can we possibly integrate the KC in our teaching actions? The programming models intend to shed some light on this issue, but a full comprehension should first go through getting familiar with what these competences are about:
1.- Linguistic Communication Competence.
This competence refers to the ability to express and interpret concepts, thoughts, feelings or opinions in both oral and written forms. This requires knowledge of meaningful vocabulary and basic syntax and grammar; the skills to communicate in a variety of communicative conditions and a positive attitude towards communication in the English language. The contribution of the FL to this competence is direct, as it happens with the mother tongue. Therefore, in our FL programming we shall design a series of communicative tasks in which students can use English in a real, practical, meaningful and motivating way.
This competence is based on linguistic knowledge, but also on pragmatic-discursive and sociocultural components, since it takes place in concrete real or fictional settings. Accordingly, it requires interaction of different skills (oral, written, social skills…) Relevance of reading as a basic skill to develop this competence.
Dimensions of LC:
A. Linguistic component:
a)Lexical competence (knowledge of, and ability to use, the vocabulary of a language, consists of lexical elements and grammatical elements).
b)Grammatical competence (knowledge of, and ability to use, the grammatical resources of a language).
c)Semantic competence (deals with the learner’s awareness and control of the organisation of meaning).
d)Phonological competence (involves a knowledge of, and skill in the perception and production of sounds and prosodic features such as stress, rhythm and intonation).
e)Orthographic competence (involves a knowledge of and skill in the perception and production of the symbols of which written texts are composed).
f)Orthoepic competence (knowledge of spelling conventions, ability to consult a dictionary, knowledge of punctuation marks and ability to interpret).
B. Pragmatic-discursive component:
••Sociolinguistic: adequate messages to different linguistic environments.
••Pragmatic: interaction abilities.
••Discursive abilities: practical usage.
C. Sociocultural component: knowledge of the world and intercultural dimension.
D. Strategic Component: strategies to deal with real English.
E. Personal component: attitude, motivation and personality.
2. Mathematical Competence and basic competence in science and technology.
Mathematical competence is the ability to develop and apply mathematical thinking to solve every day problems. It includes the knowledge of numbers, measures and basic operations, the skills to apply simple mathematical principles (i.e. making a recipe) and attitude of willingness to use mathematical reasoning in the FL class. On the other hand, competence in science and technology refers to the understanding of the natural world, the changes in nature caused by human activity and responsible behaviour as a citizen. It includes the knowledge of the basic principles of the natural world and the impact of science and technology; the skills to use and handle technological tools; and attitudes of responsible behaviour towards nature and sustainability.
The FL contributes to these competences by applying mathematical reasoning directly covering science topics or related ones as subject matter.
3. Digital Competence.
This competence is underpinned by basic skills in ICT and it includes the knowledge of the fundamental role of Information Society Technology (IST) (i.e. word processor, information storage, understanding of the opportunities and potential risks of the internet, etc); the skills to search, collect, process and use information with a purpose; and a reflective and critical attitude towards effective and responsible use of the interactive media.
Through the implementation of a CBE programming, learners will use ICT to deal with information in practical tasks related to competency projects, sharing responsibilities and collaborating to help each other.
4. Learning to learn.
It comprises the disposition and ability to organise and regulate one’s own learning, both individually and in groups. It includes the knowledge of the own ideal learning strategies and styles, their strengths and weaknesses to develop their autonomous learning strategies relying on the former and to overcome the later; the necessary skills to apply autonomous learning strategies (ICT, literacy…); and positive attitudes of motivation and confidence to succeed at learning.
Learning to learn is indispensable for permanent learning; it requires motivation towards learning, organisation (control and reflection of the own learning processes with the aim of developing autonomous learning); planning and analysis strategies; and self-confidence.
The FL area contributes to the development of this competence by providing challenges and tasks in which students have to cooperate and put into practice their individual ability to handle obstacles and change.
5. Social and civic competences.
This competence includes personal, interpersonal and intercultural competence and cover all forms of behaviour that equip students to participate in an effective and constructive way in social and working life, and particularly in increasingly diverse societies, and to resolve conflict where necessary. It entails the knowledge and understanding of social participation through accepted codes of conduct, manners and values such as justice, democracy, citizenship and human rights; the skills to communicate constructively; and the attitudes of collaboration, assertiveness and non-discrimination.
5.1 Social competence.
It implies ability and capacity to use knowledge and attitudes about society to interpret and solve social issues (conflicts, social interaction, mutual respect, democratic convictions…). In order to participate in social and interpersonal relations, the learners must be able to understand and accept social codes. Similarly, the global world we are immersed in requires understanding and acceptance of the intercultural fact.
5.2 Civic competence.
It is based on concepts such as democracy, justice, human rights, citizenship… The skills involved are related to a positive sense of community, values of respect and constructive participation, which permits positive coexistence (cooperation, empathy…).
In the FL programming, this competence is enhanced through common collaborative tasks where the English language is used with a purpose, in formal and informal use of the language.
6. Sense of initiative and entrepreneurship competence.
In a nutshell, this competence can be defined as the ability to turn ideas into actions. This requires the knowledge of available opportunities for personal development and strategies to its identification; the skills to plan, organise, manage, lead and delegate, communicate, evaluate and record; and the attitudes to take on responsibilities and assume reasonable risks.
The learning scenarios to mobilise this competence require creative thinking, taking decisions and risk taking; and the application of different skills: analysis, planning, organisation, problem solving, ability to work individually or in group, leadership, critic thinking and responsible sense, self-confidence, self-evaluation, amongst others.
7. Cultural awareness and expression.
This competence implies the knowledge, understanding and appreciation of different cultural and artistic manifestations, using them as a source of enrichment. It also refers to the own capacity to develop artistic sense. It is related to cultural heritage (from the own and different countries), including culture, art and other daily life manifestations (gastronomy, dressing, festivities…).
The development of this competence supposes attitudes of respect and interest for other cultures, valuing diversity in cultural and artistic manifestations. Therefore, its adequate development requires cultural knowledge, understanding of artistic techniques, ability to express the own artistic potential, creativity and imagination, interest and respect for cultural and artistic manifestations, etc.
Returning to the initial question on how to integrate KC in our teaching practice, despite the fact that the next point deepens into the matter, we consider indispensable to remark the methodological orientations and strategies to facilitate the development of competences suggested in Annex II (Order ECD/65/2015).
••Favour motivation towards learning.
••Interactive and dynamic strategies.
••Contextualised learning (projects: action plan to obtain a result)
••Selection of adequate materials and resources adapted to the learners, considering diversity.
••Use of ICT.
••Coordination amongst teachers to plan common methodological strategies.